This tutorial is probably also available as a Jupyter notebook in the `demo`

folder in the polymake source and on github.

Different versions of this tutorial: latest release, release 4.0, release 3.6, release 3.5, release 3.4, nightly master

**This is an old revision of the document!**

# Tutorial: Tropical arithmetics and tropical geometry

This tutorial showcases the main features of application tropical, such as

- Tropical arithmetics
- Tropical convex hull computations
- Tropical cycles and hypersurfaces.

#### Disclaimer: Min or Max - you have to choose!

Most objects and data types related to tropical computations have a template parameter which tells it whether Min or Max is used as tropical addition. There is **no default** for this, so you have to choose!

### Tropical arithmetics

You can create an element of the tropical semiring (over the rationals) simply by writing something like this:

tropical > $a = new TropicalNumber<Max>(4); tropical > $b = new TropicalNumber<Min>(4); tropical > $c = new TropicalNumber<Min>("inf");

You can now do basic arithmetic - that is **tropical** addition and multiplication with these. Note that tropical numbers with different tropical additions don't mix!

tropical > print $a * $a; 8 tropical > print $b + $c*$b; 4 tropical > #print $a + $b; This won't work!

Tropical vector/matrix arithmetics also work - you can even ask for the tropical determinant!

tropical > $m = new Matrix<TropicalNumber<Max> >([[0,1,2],[0,"-inf",3],[0,0,"-inf"]]); tropical > $v = new Vector<TropicalNumber<Max> >(1,1,2); tropical > print $m + $m; 0 1 2 0 -inf 3 0 0 -inf tropical > print $m * $v; 4 5 1 tropical > print tdet($m); 4

Finally, you can also create tropical polynomials. This can either be done in the usual manner or with a special parser:

tropical > $r = new Ring<TropicalNumber<Min> >(3); #Tropical polynomial ring in 3 variables tropical > ($x, $y, $z) = $r->variables; tropical > $p = $x*$x + $y * $z; tropical > print $p; x0^2 + x1*x2 tropical > $q = toTropicalPolynomial("min(2a,b+c)"); tropical > print $q; x0^2 + x1*x2

### Tropical convex hull computations

The basic object for tropical convex hull computations is `Cone`

(**Careful:** If you're not in application tropical, be sure to use the namespace identifier `tropical::Cone`

to distinguish it from the `polytope::Cone`

).

A tropical cone should always be created via `POINTS`

:

tropical > $c = new Cone<Min>(POINTS=>[[0,0,0],[0,2,1]]);